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Gravity Falls uses a lot of symbols hidden throughout the show. Some, like the pine tree, shooting star, and question mark represent individuals - but others, like the symbol of the six fingered hand on the covers of the secretive journals, are a bit of a mystery. But the more you analyze the show as a whole, the more sense can be made of these symbols.
Specifically, the symbol of the six fingered hand represents something far deeper than a simple logo for the journals. It's meaning stretches across all of Gravity Falls and encompases all of it's residents. In order to understand this meaning you first need to take a close look at the character designs from the show.
A cursory look can tell you that some characters are depicted with five fingers on one hand, and others four. This isn't just a quirk of the artstyle - and it can't be attributed to any constant attribute like age, character size, or sex. With these factors dismissed, the only clue we have behind the meaning of the symbol of the six fingered hand is a cryptic line Bill Cipher says: "A darkness approaches! A day will come in the future where everything you care about will change."
So it's safe to assume that the symbol of the six fingered hand represents complete knowledge of this approaching darkness and the overstretching evils of humanity. Those who know more of these terrible things have been robbed of their innocent four fingered way of thinking and represented in Gravity Falls with a fifth finger.
But this is just a theory. What do you think the symbol of the six fingered hand represents? Why do some characters have five fingers and others four? Leave your theories and suggestions in the comments below!
THE SIX FINGERED HAND [GRAVITY FALLS]: The Royal Order of the Holy Mackerel